Yeshua (ישוע, with vowel pointing יֵשׁוּעַ – yēšūă‘ in Hebrew) was a common alternative form of the name יְהוֹשֻׁעַ (“Yehoshuah” – Joshua) in later books of the Hebrew Bible and among Jews of the Second Temple period. The name corresponds to the Greek spelling Iesous, from which, through the Latin Iesus, comes the English spelling Jesus.
Yeshua in Hebrew is a verbal derivative from “to rescue”, “to deliver”.
The name יֵשׁוּעַ “Yeshua” (transliterated in the English Old Testament as Jeshua) is a late form of the Biblical Hebrew name יְהוֹשֻׁעַ Yehoshua (Joshua), and spelled with a waw in the second syllable.
The name Yehoshua has the form of a compound of “Yeho-” and “shua”: Yeho- יְהוֹ is another form of יָהו Yahu, a theophoric element standing for the name of God יהוה (the tetragrammaton YHWH, sometimes transcribed into English as Yahweh or Jehovah), and שׁוּעַ shua‘is a noun meaning “a cry for help”, “a saving cry”, that is to say, a shout given when in need of rescue. Together, the name would then literally mean, “YHWH (Yahu) is a saving-cry,” that is to say, shout to YHWH [God] when in need of help.
Yeshua יֵשוּעַ [jeˈʃuăʕ]. The Hebrew letter Yod י /j/ is vocalized with the Hebrew vowel tsere /e/ (a ‘long’ e like the first syllable of “neighbor” but not diphthongized) rather than with ashva /ə/ (as Y’shua) or segol /ɛ/ (Yesh-shua). The final letter Ayin ע is /ʕ/ (a rough, guttural sound not found in Greek or English), sometimes transcribed ” ` ” (Yeshua`). The final[ăʕ] represents the “patach genuvah” (“furtive” patach), indicating that the consonant `ayin is pronounced after the a vowel, and the word’s stress is moved to the middle syllable (the characteristics of the furtive patach can be seen in other words, such as רוח [ˈruăħ] ‘spirit’). Thus it is pronounced [jeˈʃu.a(ʕ)] in Modern Hebrew, approximately ye-shew-ə.
- Yeshua (name), the Hebrew name ישוע, an ancient common variant of Yehoshua יהושע (equivalent to English Joshua or Jeshua).
- Jesus, whose English name comes from the Hebrew “Yeshua” via the Greek “Iesous”
- Yehoshua (disambiguation), the Hebrew name יהושע (equivalent to English Joshua).
- Yahshua, modern variant of Yeshua.
- Yahshuah, modern variant of Yeshua.
Yeshua may also refer to:
- Yeshua Ben Sira ישוע בן סירא (equivalent to English Jesus Son of Sirach), the 2nd century BCE author of the Book of Sirach, also called Ecclesiasticus, translated from Hebrew into Greek becoming one of the deuterocanonical books of the Septuagint Bible.
- Yeshua, late 5th century BCE high priest of Israel.
- Ilan Yeshua (fl. 2000s), business manager.
- Tnuat Ma’aynei Hayeshua
The Greek transliteration Ἰησοῦς(Iēsous) *jesu-os → [jeˈsus] can stand for both Classical Biblical Hebrew Yehoshua [jəhoˈʃuaʕ] (top two) and Late Biblical Hebrew Yeshua [jeˈʃuaʕ](bottom). This later form developed within Hebrew (not Aramaic). All three spelling variants occur in the Hebrew Bible, including when referring to the same person. During the Second Temple Period, Jews of Galilee tended to preserve the traditional spelling, keeping the <ו> letter for the [o] in the first syllable, even adding another letter for the [u] in the second syllable. However, Jews of Jerusalem tended to spell the name as they pronounced it,[jeˈʃuaʕ], contracting the spelling to ישוע without the [o] letter. Later, Aramaic references to the Hebrew Bible adopted the contracted phonetic form of this Hebrew name as an Aramaic name.